Thiomersal

Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), or sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate, commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent.

Detailed Product Information
IUPAC name Thiomersal
Other names Mercury((o-carboxyphenyl)thio)ethyl sodium salt
Identifiers CAS number 54-64-8
EC number 200-210-4
RTECS number OV8400000
Properties Molecular formula C9H9HgNaO2S
Molar mass 404.81 g/mol
Appearance White or slightly yellow powder
Density 500 kg/m³
Melting point 232–233°C (decomposition)
Solubility in water 1000 g/l (20°C)
Hazards MSDS
External MSDS
R-phrases R26/27/28 R33 R50/53
S-phrases S13 S28 S36 S45 S60 S61
NFPA 704 1 3 1
Flash point 250°C
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Artificial induction of immunity / Immunization: Vaccines, Vaccination, and Inoculation (J07)
Antiseptics and disinfectants (D08)
Categories: ‪Carboxylic acids‬

It was invented and patented by Morris Kharasch. The pharmaceutical corporation Eli Lilly and Company gave it the trade name Merthiolate and it has been used as a preservative in vaccines, immunoglobulin preparations, skin test antigens, antivenins, ophthalmic and nasal products, and tattoo inks. Its use as a vaccine preservative is controversial, and it is being phased out from routine childhood vaccines in the United States, the European Union, and a few other countries.[1]


Content
1.0 Use
2.0 Toxicology
2.1 Allergies
2.2 Autism
3.0 History
4.0 See also
5.0 References

Use
Thiomersal’s main use is as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. In multidose injectable drug delivery systems, it prevents serious adverse effects such as the Staphylococcus infection that, in one 1928 incident, killed 12 of 21 children inoculated with a diphtheria vaccine that lacked a preservative.[2] Unlike other vaccine preservatives used at the time, thiomersal does not reduce the potency of the vaccines that it protects.[3] Bacteriostatics like thiomersal are not needed in more-expensive single-dose injectables.[4]

In the United States, countries in the European Union and a few other affluent countries, thiomersal is no longer used as a preservative in routine childhood vaccination schedules.[1] In the U.S., the only exceptions among vaccines routinely recommended for children are some formulations of the inactivated influenza vaccine for children older than two years.[5] Several vaccines that are not routinely recommended for young children do contain thiomersal, including DT (diphtheria and tetanus), Td (tetanus and diphtheria), and TT (tetanus toxoid); other vaccines may contain a trace of thiomersal from steps in manufacture.[2] Also, four rarely used treatments for pit viper, coral snake, and black widow venom still contain thiomersal.[6] Outside North America and Europe, many vaccines contain thiomersal; the World Health Organization has concluded that there is no evidence of toxicity from thiomersal in vaccines and no reason on safety grounds to change to more-expensive single-dose administration.[7]

Toxicology
Thiomersal is very toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and in contact with skin (EC hazard symbol T+), with a danger of cumulative effects. It is also very toxic to aquatic organisms and may cause long-term adverse effects in aquatic environments (EC hazard symbol N).[8] In the body, it is metabolized or degraded to ethylmercury (C2H5Hg+) and thiosalicylate.[2]

Few studies of the toxicity of thiomersal in humans have been performed. Animal experiments suggest that thiomersal rapidly dissociates to release ethylmercury after injection; that the disposition patterns of mercury are similar to those after exposure to equivalent doses of ethylmercury chloride; and that the central nervous system and the kidneys are targets, with lack of motor coordination being a common sign. Similar signs and symptoms have been observed in accidental human poisonings.

The mechanisms of toxic action are unknown. Fecal excretion accounts for most of the elimination from the body. Ethylmercury clears from blood with a half-life of about 18 days, and from the brain in about 14 days. Inorganic mercury metabolized from ethylmercury has a much longer clearance, at least 120 days; it appears to be much less toxic than the inorganic mercury produced from mercury vapor, for reasons not yet understood.[9]

Risk assessment for effects on the nervous system have been made by extrapolating from dose-response relationships for methylmercury.[9] Methylmercury and ethylmercury distributes to all body tissues, crossing the blood-brain barrier and the placental barrier, and ethylmercury also moves freely throughout the body.[10]

Concerns based on extrapolations from methylmercury caused thiomersal to be removed from U.S. childhood vaccines, starting in 1999. Since then, it has been found that ethylmercury is cleared from the body and the brain significantly faster than methylmercury, so the late-1990s risk assessments turned out to be overly conservative.[9] A 2008 study found that the half-life of blood mercury after vaccination averages 3.7 days for newborns and infants, much shorter than the 44 days for methylmercury.[11]

Allergies
Thiomersal is used in patch testing for people who have dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and other potentially allergic reactions. A 2007 study in Norway found that 1.9% of adults had a positive patch test reaction to thiomersal;[12] a higher prevalence of contact allergy (up to 6.6%) was observed in German populations.[13] Thiomersal-sensitive individuals can receive intramuscular rather than subcutaneous immunization,[14] so contact allergy is usually clinically irrelevant.[13]  Thiomersal allergy has decreased in Denmark, probably because of its exclusion from vaccines there.[15]

It was voted Allergen of the Year in 2002 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

Autism
Main article: Thiomersal controversy
There is no convincing evidence that thiomersal is a factor in the onset of autism.[16] Despite this, many parents, and some scientists and doctors, believe there is a connection.[17] Parents may first become aware of autistic symptoms in their child around the time of a routine vaccination, and parental concern about vaccines has led to a decreasing uptake of childhood immunizations and an increasing likelihood of measles outbreaks.[2][16][18]

More than 5,000 U.S. families have filed claims in a federal vaccine court alleging autism was caused by vaccines, most implicating thiomersal; the majority of these claims are still being adjudicated.[17]

The U.S. federal government agreed to award damages in one case, to a girl with a mitochondrial enzyme deficiency who developed autistic-like symptoms after receiving a series of vaccines,[19] some of which contained thiomersal. Many parents view this ruling as confirming that vaccines cause regressive autism;[20] however, most children with autism do not seem to have mitochondrial disorders, and the case was conceded without proof of causation.[21]

History
Morris Kharasch, a chemist at the University of Maryland, filed a patent application for thiomersal in 1927;[22] Eli Lilly later marketed the compound under the trade name Merthiolate.[3] In vitro tests conducted by Lilly investigators H.M. Powell and W.A. Jamieson found that it was forty to fifty times as effective as phenol against Staphylococcus aureus.[3] It was used to kill bacteria and prevent contamination in antiseptic ointments, creams, jellies, and sprays used by consumers and in hospitals, including nasal sprays, eye drops, contact lens solutions, immunoglobulins, and vaccines. Thiomersal was used as a preservative (bactericide) so that multidose vials of vaccines could be used instead of single-dose vials, which are more expensive. By 1938, Lilly’s assistant director of research listed thiomersal as one of the five most important drugs ever developed by the company.[3]

Thiomersal’s safety for its intended uses first came under question in the 1970s, when case reports demonstrated potential for neurotoxicity when given in large volumes as a topical antiseptic. At the time, the DPT vaccine was the only childhood vaccine that contained it; a 1976 United States Food and Drug Administration review concluded that this use of thiomersal was not dangerous.[3] Concerns about mercury arising from Minamata disease and other cases of methylmercury poisoning led U.S. authorities to lower reference doses for methylmercury in the 1990s, about the same time that autism diagnoses began rising sharply. In 1999, a new FDA analysis concluded that infants could receive as much as 187.5 micrograms of ethylmercury during the first six months;[23] lacking any standard for ethylmercury, it used methylmercury-based standards to recommend that thiomersal be removed from routine infant vaccines in the U.S., which was largely complete by summer 2001.[3] Some parents of autistic children adopted thiomersal as an explanation for the increase in reported autism cases and sued vaccine makers; the mercury-autism hypothesis is accepted widely among parents of autistic children, despite scientific studies rejecting it.[3][24]

See also
Mercurochrome

References
1. ^ a b Bigham M, Copes R (2005). “Thiomersal in vaccines: balancing the risk of adverse effects with the risk of vaccine-preventable disease”. Drug Saf 28 (2): 89–101. doi:10.2165/00002018-200528020-00001. PMID 15691220.
2. ^ a b c d “Thimerosal in vaccines”. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
3. ^ a b c d e f g Baker JP (2008). “Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories”. Am J Public Health 98 (2): 244–53. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.113159. PMID 18172138.
4. ^ “Thimerosal in Vaccines: Frequently Asked Questions”. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
5. ^ Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (2007-10-26). “Thimerosal in seasonal influenza vaccine”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
6. ^ “Mercury in plasma-derived products”. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2004-09-09. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
7. ^ Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (2006-07-14). “Thiomersal and vaccines”. World Health Organization. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
8. ^ “Thiomersal Ph Eur, BP, USP material safety data sheet” (PDF). Merck. 2005-06-12. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
9. ^ a b c Toxicology of thiomersal:
Clarkson TW (2002). “The three modern faces of mercury”. Environ Health Perspect 110 (S1): 11–23. PMID 11834460.
Clarkson TW, Magos L (2006). “The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds”. Crit Rev Toxicol 36 (8): 609–62. doi:10.1080/10408440600845619. PMID 16973445.
10. ^ Clarkson TW, Vyas JB, Ballatori N (2007). “Mechanisms of mercury disposition in the body”. Am J Ind Med 50 (10): 757–64. doi:10.1002/ajim.20476. PMID 17477364.
11. ^ Pichichero ME, Gentile A, Giglio N et al. (2008). “Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines”. Pediatrics 121 (2): e208–14. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-3363. PMID 18245396. Lay summary – University of Rochester Medical Center (2008-01-30).
12. ^ Dotterud LK, Smith-Sivertsen T (2007). “Allergic contact sensitization in the general adult population: a population-based study from Northern Norway”. Contact Dermatitis 56 (1): 10–5. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.00980.x. PMID 17177703.
13. ^ a b Uter W, Ludwig A, Balda BR (2004). “The prevalence of contact allergy differed between population-based and clinic-based data”. J Clin Epidemiol 57 (6): 627–32. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2003.04.002. PMID 15246132.
14. ^ Aberer W (1991). “Vaccination despite thimerosal sensitivity”. Contact Dermatitis 24 (1): 6–10. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1991.tb01621.x. PMID 2044374.
15. ^ Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menné T, Johansen JD (2007). “The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population—prevalence and main findings”. Contact Dermatitis 57 (5): 287–99. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01220.x. PMID 17937743.
16. ^ a b Doja A, Roberts W (2006). “Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature”. Can J Neurol Sci 33 (4): 341–6. PMID 17168158.
17. ^ a b Sugarman SD (2007). “Cases in vaccine court—legal battles over vaccines and autism”. N Engl J Med 357 (13): 1275–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMp078168. PMID 17898095.
18. ^ Taylor B (2006). “Vaccines and the changing epidemiology of autism”. Child Care Health Dev 32 (5): 511–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00655.x. PMID 16919130.
19. ^ Offit PA (2008). “Vaccines and autism revisited—the Hannah Poling case”. N Engl J Med 358 (20): 2089–91. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0802904. PMID 18480200.
20. ^ Harris G (2008-03-08). “Deal in an autism case fuels debate on vaccine”. NY Times.
21. ^ Honey K (2008). “Attention focuses on autism”. J Clin Invest 118 (5): 1586–7. doi:10.1172/JCI35821. PMID 18451989.
22. ^ U.S. Patent 1,672,615 “Alkyl mercuric sulphur compound and process of producing it”.
23. ^ Ball LK, Ball R, Pratt RD (2001). “An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines”. Pediatrics 107 (5): 1147–54. doi:10.1542/peds.107.5.1147. PMID 11331700.
24. ^ DeStefano F (2007). “Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association”. Clin Pharmacol Ther 82 (6): 756–9. doi:10.1038/sj.clpt.6100407. PMID 17928818.

Dr Robert Mendelsohn, M.D.

Dr Robert Mendelsohn, M.D.
Vaccine Critics

Dr Robert Mendelsohn received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Chicago in 1951.  For 12 years he was an instructor at Northwest University Medical College, and an additional 12 years served as Associtae Professor of Pediatrics and Community Health and Preventive Medicine at the University of Illinois College of Medicine.

He was also President of the National Health Federation, former National Director of Project Head Starts Medical Consultation Service, and Chairman of the Medical Licensing Comittee of the State of Illinois.

He appeared on over 500 television and radio talk shows, and is the author of Confessions of a Medical Heretic, Male Practice: How Doctors Manipulate Women, and How To Raise a Healthy Child In Spite of Your Doctor

Quotes

Publications
CONFESSIONS OF A MEDICAL HERETIC By Robert S. Mendelsohn, M.D. chapter 7
The Devil’s Priests
The Medical Time Bomb of Immunisation Against Disease by Dr Robert Mendelsohn MD
Rubella vaccine linked to Epstein-Barr Virus—Dr Mendelsohn MD (1987)
Tetanus Vaccination by Dr Mendelsohn MD
Flu vaccination–Dr Mendelsohn MD
Rabies vaccine by Dr Mendelsohn MD
Bottle feeding & breast feeding
Foreword by Robert S. Mendelsohn, MD to Slaughter of the Innocent, 1982, by Hans Ruesch
Foreword to Why Suffer by Anne Wigmore

[1982] Male Practice: How Doctors Manipulate Women, ISBN 0809257211
[1987] How To Raise a Healthy Child In Spite of Your Doctor, NTC/Contemporary Publishing Company, ISBN 0809249952
Chapter headings include: Parents & Grandparents are wiser than doctors, How Doctors Can Make Healthy Kids Sick, Protecting Your Children before They Are Born, Fever: your Body’s Defense against Disease, Asthma & Allergies: Try Diet Not Drugs, Immunisation Against Disease: A medical Timebomb, Hospitals: Where Patients Go to Get Sick!
[1991] Confessions of a Medical Heretic, ISBN 0809277263
External links
NaturalChild.com – ‘The Child Who Never Sits Still’, Robert Mendelsohn, MD

mendb.jpg (23240 bytes)




 Source:

http://www.whale.to/v/mendelsohn.html

Vaccine Nation – Director’s Cut (Gary Null)

For most people, vaccinating themselves and their children seems like a good idea. Vaccines are safe, effective and are supposed to protect us against dangerous infectious diseases – Right? Wrong! What you don’t know can harm you or kill you! In this groundbreaking film, you will: * See the truth about the dangers of vaccines and their direct relationship to autoimmune diseases, infections, allergies and a massive increase of developmental learning and behavioral disorders in children, such as Autism. * Discover the truth about the history of vaccines and how they have NEVER been proven to be safe and effective for anyone. * Witness the legacy of governmental deception and cover-ups associated with vaccines. * Learn about the corruption within the scientific community and how vaccine studies are seriously flawed. * You’ll also follow heart-wrenching, real life stories of the parents and children devastated by the effects of vaccines. Join director Gary Null PhD and over 40 of the worlds foremost vaccine experts in this shocking expose’ that will shatter the truth as you know it. DVD copies are available at http://www.garynull.com

Q: Can a vaccination cause Death or Autism?

Q: Can a vaccination cause Death or Autism?

A: Yes

Q: How?

A. 1). Many vaccines (and medicines) are incorrectly administered. The person administering the vaccine fails to aspirate the syringe (draw back on the plunger to see if blood flows back into the syringe, indicating they have struck a vein). Because the veins of an infant are small and narrow, they may collapse when the syringe is aspirated, giving a FALSE indication that it is safe to administer the vaccine. As a result, the vaccine or medicine is injected directly into a vein, and circulates throughout the cardiovascular system, infiltrating the brain, intestines, and other organs. The vein may also blow up like a balloon and rupture. This may be marked by a purple area at or near the injection site. The vaccine or medicine now circulates in the blood, causing varying degrees of Hypercoagulability. In more serious cases, the increased fibrin inhibits oxygen and nutrient transport. In a weakened state, a child may succumb to asphyxia, commonly known as sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS.

2). Even when properly administered, a vaccination can be life threatening if viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens are already present in the body of the person to be vaccinated, and neurologically disabling if heavy metals such as mercury are present in the body, or injected as an adjuvant in another vaccine, when multiple vaccines are simultaneously administered, or other toxic loads are present.

3). According to Doctor Boyd Haley, professor and Chair of the Chemistry Department at the University of Kentucky, there is a 100 times toxic effect if aluminum and mercury appear at the same time. This means that if you give multiple vaccinations, and one or more contain an aluminum adjuvant, and just one contains a mercury adjuvant (like many vaccines containing an attenuated virus), the toxic effect is the equivalent to giving a 2,500 microgram injection of mercury. If the vaccine recipient already has the smallest trace of mercury in his body, the effect is also 100 times for a single shot of a new vaccine that now contains an aluminum adjuvant, instead of methylmercury.

Dr. Boyd Haley selected 100 rats to use in each of his experiments.

He injected 100 rats with the type of mercury used in vaccines. 1 rat out of 100 died.

He then injected 100 rats with the type of mercury used in vaccines, AND also with the type of aluminum used in the new “mercury free vaccines.” 100 out of 100 rats died.

When trace amounts of mercury are already present in the human body from vaccines, eating fish, or amalgam fillings, a “mercury free” vaccine that contains 225 micrograms of aluminum can be debilitating, cause myelin degeneration around nerves, muscle pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, and even death,

– Findings of the VAERS Court, Jan, 2009
http://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/MILLMAN.DOE012109B_0.pdf

4). Patients receiving a vaccination are virtually never asked about or tested for allergic reactions, or questioned about family history ans sensitivity to vaccine ingredients.

5). An estimated 1 in 50 humans suffer from a genetic IRAK4 impeded immune response (deficiency), which results in increased inflammation, plus increased bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. No precautions are being taken to protect the lives of these children when given a vaccine (PART OF THE WATCHDOG USA NETWORK, 2009).

Resource:
PART OF THE WATCHDOG USA NETWORK. (2009). Death By Vaccination. Retrieved from http://deathbyvaccination.com/

Needling Questions: Immunizing Kids

Kathy McManus of the Responsibility Project (2008) asks, “If you choose not to have your child vaccinated against measles, mumps, chicken pox, and other infectious diseases, does your responsibility end there?”

It’s a debate that continues as the trend for not vaccinating children increases.

Parents who believe that vaccinations are linked to autism, or who object for religious or other reasons, balk at government regulations that bar their unvaccinated children from attending school if they don’t have the required shots. One anti-vaccination group calls forced vaccination “a violation of human rights.”

But those on the opposite side of the argument say not vaccinating violates the rights of others. According to officials at the Centers for Disease Control, “The decision not to vaccinate is a decision for your child but also a decision for society.” They say that unlike other medical issues where refusing treatment affects only the patient, refusing vaccinations puts others at risk as well, including newborns and people with suppressed immune systems.

Parents of unimmunized children rely on the vast majority of kids who do get their shots, figuring there’s little polio, measles, chicken pox or other pathogens to be found among so many protected kids. But with recent measles outbreaks in four states, that protection may not be enough. “We are seeing outbreaks that look different, concentrated among intentionally unimmunized people,” says an immunization official. “I hope they’re not the beginning of a worse trend.”

Tell us what you think: When it comes to vaccinations, do parents have a responsibility beyond their own children?

Resource
McManus, Kathy (2008), The Responsibility Project, Needling Questions: Immunizing Kids, http://www.responsibilityproject.com/blog/post/needling-questions-immunizing-kids/.
June 30, 2008. By Comments (688)

Vaccine Information for Parents

Making an informed vaccination decision and taking responsibility for it is not easy. At times, it seems a lot easier to not ask questions or simply do what someone else tells us to do. But remaining uninformed and trusting blindly can be the biggest risk of all. You have the right to make informed, voluntary choices about risks you are willing to take with your life or your child’s life when it comes to making health care decisions, including vaccination decisions. Exercise your right to be an informed health care consumer.

The National Vaccine Information Center recommends obtaining information from many different sources and consulting one or more health care professionals before making a vaccination decision. NVIC’s website (www.nvic.org) is linked to many different information resources. It is important to become informed about the risks and complications of diseases as well as the risks and complications of vaccines when making a vaccination decision.

Parents: IF YOU VACCINATE, ASK EIGHT:

1. Is my child sick right now?
2. Has my child had a bad reaction to a vaccination before?
3. Does my child have a personal or family history of:
* vaccine reactions;
* convulsions or neurological disorders;
* severe allergies;
* or immune system disorders?
4. Do I know if my child is at high risk of reacting??
5. Do I know how to identify a vaccine reaction?
6. Do I know how to report a vaccine reaction?
7. Do I know the vaccine manufacturer’s name and lot number?
8. Do I know I have a choice?

Resource:
http://www.nvic.org/Vaccine-Memorial/Vaccine-Info.aspx

Support After a Child Dies

Parents aren’t supposed to experience the passing of their child.   When a child dies, a family experiences disbelief and the raw emotions of grief.  How do they cope?  Family members who have experienced this loss firsthand share thoughts and insights of the grief journey, how the child’s death has affected their lives, and how finding support from The Compassionate Friends has helped them to survive.

If you know someone who has experienced the loss of a child, The Compassionate Friends can help.  A dear friend told me after the passing of my dear sweet son, to remember to take care of myself and to get help.  His parents experienced the loss of their son, his older brother and never got help.  He explained how they didn’t get help and how it negatively affected thier lives.
 
Call or visit their Website for more information.

  • 630-990-0010 or 877-969-0010 

         (9 AM-5 PM Central or leave a voicemail)

They will assemble a packet of information pertaining to your situation.